Interessanter Bericht auf dem “familyfoodtrip.blog” über das Heilige Tal der Inkas.
In Peru Nähe Cusco. Mit vielen interessanten Fotos.
Darunter noch Bilder und etwas zur Geschichte des Valle Sagrado de los Inkas.
Geschichte des heiligen Tales der Inkas:
The early Incas lived in the Cuzco area. By conquest or diplomacy, during the period 1000 to 1400 CE, the Inca achieved administrative control over the various ethnic groups living in or near the Sacred Valley.
The attraction of the Sacred Valley to the Inca, in addition to its proximity to Cuzco, was probably that it was lower in elevation and therefore warmer than any other nearby area. The lower elevation permitted maize to be grown in the Sacred Valley. Maize was a prestige crop for the Incas, especially to make chicha, a fermented maize drink the Incas and their subjects consumed in large quantities at their many ceremonial feasts and religious festivals.
Chicha has had a long historical significance. In times of warfare, the Incas would take the decapitated skull of their enemies and turn it into a drinking vessel for Chicha. This ceremonial process of drinking Chicha from the head of a foe symbolized the successful transformation from the disorder of warfare to the order of the Incan Empire.
Large scale maize production in the Sacred Valley was apparently facilitated by varieties bred in nearby Moray, either a governmental crop laboratory or a seedling nursery of the Incas.
The Inca customarily divided conquered lands into three more-or-less equal parts. One part was for the emperor (the Sapa Inca), one part for the religious establishment, and one part for the communities of farmers themselves. In the 1400s, the Sacred Valley became an area of royal estates and country homes. Once a royal estate was created by an emperor it continued to be owned by descendants of the emperor after his death. The estate of the emperor Yawar Waqaq (c. 1380) was located at Paullu and Lamay (a few kilometers downstream from Pisac); Huchuy Qosqo, the estate of the emperor Viracocha Inca (c. 1410–1438), overlooks the Sacred Valley; the estate of Pachacuti (1438–1471) was at Pisac; and the sparse ruins of Quispiguanca. the estate of the emperor Huayna Capac (1493–1527), are in the town of Urubamba. Most archaeologists believe that Machu Picchu was built as an estate for Pachacuti.
Agricultural terraces, called andenes, were built up hillsides flanking the valley floor and are today the most visible and widespread signs of the Inca civilization in the Sacred Valley.
In 1537, the Inca Emperor Manco Inca Yupanqui fought and won the Battle of Ollantaytambo against a Spanish army headed by Hernando Pizarro. Nevertheless, Manco soon withdrew from the Sacred Valley and the area came under the control of the Spanish colonialists.
Oral histories in the Quechua language suggest that the ancient Inca married Pachamama (Mother Earth) and produced human offspring. The Incas are renowned for their precision in stone masonry. Architecture was a means of bringing order to untamed areas and people of the Andes region. Machu Picchu, located in the Sacred Valley, is an example of the Incas adapting building strategies that acknowledge the topography of the area. While other Pre-Columbian cultures constructed man-made mountains, the Incas emphasized the natural forms of the topography around them. The Sacred Rock, located in the Sacred Valley, is an example of stone that draws attention to the horizon of the mountain range.
Weitere Quellen und Hinweise über die Geschichte des Valle Sagrado (Heiliges Tal der Inkas)
- (7) Alan Covey, R (2003). “A processual study of Inka state formation”. Journal of Anthropological Archaeology. 22 (4): 333–57. doi:10.1016/S0278-4165(03)00030-8.
- (8) Bauer and Covey, p. 846
- (9) D’Altroy, p. 189
- (10) Dean, Carolyn (2007). “The Inka Married the Earth: Integrated Outcrops and the Making of Place”. The Art Bulletin. 89 (3): 502–18. doi:10.1080/00043079.2007.10786358. ISSN 0004-3079. JSTOR 25067338.
- (11) Earls, John (nd), “The Character of Inca and Andean Agriculture,” pp. 18–19. http://macareo.pucp.edu.pe/~jearls/documentosPDF/theCharacter.PDF
- (12) Plachetka, Uwe Christian; Pietsch, Stephan A. (2009). “El centro vaviloviano en el Perú: un conjunto socio-ecológico frente a riesgos extremos” [The center Vavilov year in Peru: a socio-ecological set against extreme risks] (PDF). Tikpa Pachapaq (in Spanish). 1 (1): 9–16.
- (13) McEwan, pp. 87–88
- (14) Covey, R. Alan (2009), How the Incas built their Heartland, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, p. 217; Niles, Susan A. (1999), The Shape of Inca History, Iowas City: University of Iowa Press, pp. 133–53. Project Muse.
- (15) Rowe, John (1990). “Machu Picchu a la luz de documentos de siglo XVI”. Historia, 16 (1), pp. 139–54
- (16) Guillet, David and others (1987), “Terracing and Irrigation in the Peruvian Highlands,” Current Anthropology, Vol. 28, No. 4, pp. 409–10. Downloaded from JSTOR.
- (17) Hemming, John (1970). The Conquest of the Incas, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, pp. 213–32.
(18) Dean, Carolyn (2007). “The Inka Married the Earth: Integrated Outcrops and the Making of Place”. The Art Bulletin. 89 (3): 502–18. doi:10.1080/00043079.2007.10786358. ISSN 0004-3079. JSTOR 25067338.